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以史为鉴:美国名人一百排行榜

简介1.亚伯拉罕・林肯(1809~1865):拯救了国家,解放了黑奴,再造了美国。2.乔治・华盛顿(1732~1799):缔造了美利...
1.亚伯拉罕・林肯(1809~1865):拯救了国家,解放了黑奴,再造了美国。

2.乔治・华盛顿(1732~1799):缔造了美利坚合众国,赶走了一个国王,也拒绝成为国王。

3.托马斯・杰斐逊(1743~1826):《独立宣言》主要起草人,写下了美国历史上分量最重的五个字:“人生而平等”。

4.富兰克林・罗斯福(1882~1945):他告诫逆境中的美国:“我们唯一恐惧的就是恐惧本身”。

5.亚历山大・汉密尔顿(1755~1804):战士、银行家、科学家、政治家,他带领美国从农业社会走向了工业社会。

6.本杰明・富兰克林(1706~1790):科学家、作家,发明家、外交家。

7.约翰・马歇尔(1755~1835):美国最高法院首席法官,三权分立制度的主要创建人。

8.小马丁・路德・金(1929~1968):用慷慨激昂的演讲,抒发种族平等的梦想,虽然道路漫长而艰险,但没有其他人能比他看得更高,走得更远。

9.托马斯・爱迪生(1847~1931):白炽灯、留声机、炭粒话筒、电影放映机……他创办了世界上第一个工业研究实验室,拥有1093项发明专利权,上帝也惊讶自己居然创造了这么一位发明天才!

10.伍德鲁・威尔逊(1856~1924):第28任美国总统(1913~1921),国际联盟的首倡人,1919年诺贝尔和平奖的获得者。

11.约翰・D・洛克菲勒(1839~1937):创办俄亥俄美孚石油公司,美国第一个托拉斯(1881)的缔造者。

12.尤利西斯・格兰特(1822~1885):美国第18任总统(1869~1877),美国内战时期林肯帐下得力干将。总统任内,虽然面临战后财政捉襟见肘的窘境,但力主大赦“叛乱”者,重建饱受苦难的南方。

13.詹姆士・麦迪逊(1751~1836):美国第4任总统(1809~1817),美国宪法之父,《权利法案》起草人。

14.亨利・福特(1863~1947):汽车制造商,T型汽车和装配线生产法的发明者,美国汽车时代的催生婆。

15.西奥多・罗斯福(1858~1919):美国第26任总统(1901~1909),一个雄心万丈,励精图治的政治家,1906年诺贝尔和平奖获得者。他修造运河,扶植托拉斯,为美国进入奋发有为的二十世纪立下了汗马功劳。

16.马克・吐温(1835~1910):美国国民生活最忠实的记录者。

17.罗纳德・里根(1911~2004):美国第40任总统(1981~1988),保守主义联盟的旗手,开启了“星球大战”计划,促成了冷战的结束。

18.安德鲁・杰克逊(1767~1845):美国第7任总统(1829~1837),第二次抗英战争时期为保卫新奥尔良城,击败英军立下赫赫战功。作为第一个伟大的民粹主义者,他让民主思想根深蒂固,使共和体制落地生根。

19.托马斯・潘恩(1737~1809):美国历史上第一个伟大的激进主义者,著书立说为美国走向独立大声疾呼。

20.安德鲁・卡内基(1835~1919):一个自强不息的钢铁巨头,一个乐善好施的慈善家。

21.哈里・杜鲁门(1884~1972):美国第33任总统(1945~1952)把美国和世界带入了原子时代,继而又把世界带入了冷战的时代。

22.沃尔特・惠特曼(1819~1892):歌颂祖国,塑造了美国精神。

23.威尔伯・莱特(1867~1912)和奥威尔・莱特(1871~1948):两兄弟把人类从地面带上了天空,实现了飞天梦想。

24.亚历山大・格雷厄姆・贝尔(1847~1922):发明了电话,世界因此变小了。

25.约翰・亚当斯(1735~1826):美国第2任总统(1797~1801),美国独立战争的旗手之一,建国后首任驻英大使(1785~1788),他夯实了美国共和体制。

26.沃尔特・迪斯尼(1901~1966):他打造的童话王国无人可比。

27.埃里・惠特尼(1765~1825):这位机械工程师发明了轧花机,铸就了一个棉纺帝国。

28.德怀特・艾森豪威尔(1890~1969):美国第34任总统(1953~1961),打了一场朝鲜战争,赢了两次总统选举。

29.厄尔・沃伦(1891~1974):他主政下的美国最高法院(1953~1969)捍卫了美国社会的民权理念,也给美国留下了文化冲突的政治遗产。

30.伊丽莎白・凯迪・斯坦顿夫人(1815~1902):美国最伟大的女权主义者之一,全力争取社会改革,为美国妇女争取到了选举权。

31.亨利・克莱(1777~1852):曾任国务卿(1825~1829)和参议员(1831~1842),鼓吹建立“美国制度”,力主美国南北相互妥协,使内战爆发的时间推迟了数十年。

32.阿尔伯特・爱因斯坦(1879~1955):诺贝尔物理学奖获得者(1921),在欧洲完成了他一生最伟大的科学研究。在美国,他的相对论和人道主义情怀使他千古流芳。

33.拉尔夫・瓦尔多・爱默生(1803~1882):倡导个性主义的游吟诗人,美国超验主义运动的急先锋。

34.乔纳斯・索尔克(1914~1995):他发明的脊髓灰质炎灭活疫苗根除了世界上最可怕的瘟疫之一――小儿麻痹症。

35.杰基・鲁滨逊(1919~1972):这位黑人棒球高手打破了体坛的“颜色壁垒”。

36.威廉・詹宁斯・布莱恩(1860~1925):主张“和为贵”的鸽派人士,因反对参加一战,主张严守中立而辞职。这位“最伟大的国会议员”三次代表民主党竞选总统屡败屡战,终于问鼎国务卿一职(1913~1915)。他的民粹主义思想和逆风而行的作派塑造了美国的权力制衡理念。

37.J・P・摩根(1837~1913):金融寡头和铁路运输巨子。

38.苏珊・B・安东尼(1820~1906):她大声疾呼以法律的正义,给美国妇女平等权利。

39.蕾切尔・卡逊(1907~1964):环保主义的开山之作《寂静的春天》的作者。

40.约翰・杜威(1859~1952):把国立学校的教育原则建立在民主理念的基础之上。

41.哈瑞・比彻・斯陀夫人(1811~1896):《汤姆叔叔的小屋》激励了一代人的“废奴运动”,也把内战搬上了历史舞台。

42.爱莉诺・罗斯福夫人(1884~1962):国务活动家,曾任美国驻联合国代表(1945;1949~1952;1961),联合国人权委员会主席(1946~1951),在任期间,力促联合国通过《世界人权宣言》。她凭借美国“第一夫人”的影响和大众传媒的力量塑造了名副其实的“世界第一夫人”形象。

43.W・E・B・杜波依斯(1868~1963):美国激进派黑人领袖,作家、历史学家、社会活动家,参与创建美国全国有色人种协进会(1909),领导泛非运动,1961年转向美国共产党,后来加入加纳国籍,成为“黑人国际”的先锋人物,著作《黑色的火焰》表达了他的斗士精神。

44.林登・贝恩斯・约翰逊(1908~1973):美国第36任总统(1963~1969),他英明地颁布了人权法案,却固执地陷入了越南泥潭。

45.塞缪尔・F・B・莫尔斯(1791~1872):人类进入因特网时代之前,莫尔斯电码是最快捷的联络方法。

46.威廉・劳埃德・加里森(1805~1879):1831年创办《解放者报》,参加创建美国反奴隶制协会(1833)并担任主席(1843~1865),推动废奴运动,支持《废奴宣言》。

47.弗里德里希・道格拉斯(1817~1895):黑奴出身,美国废奴及人权运动领袖。他抨击美国的伦理道德,历数蓄奴制度的种种罪愆,旗帜宣明拥护林肯的英明领导,反对南方诸州脱离联邦、分裂国家。

48.罗伯特・奥本海默(1904~1967):“曼哈顿计划”实验室首席专家(1943~1945),原子弹之父,后任美国原子能委员会主席、总顾问(1947~1952)。他对自己成为热核武器时代的助产士深感懊悔,因反对美国政府试制氢弹被勒令解甲归田。

49.弗里德里克・劳・奥姆斯特德(1822~1903):园林设计师,绿化美国城市的倡议人,纽约中央公园是其大手笔。

50.詹姆士・K・波尔克(1795~1849):美国第11任总统(1845~1849),四年的任期足以让他通过战争从南方弱小的邻居那里攫取了加利福尼亚、得克萨斯和西南部广袤无垠的土地。

51.马格丽特・桑格夫人(1883~1966):计划生育运动的首倡者,创立美国计划生育联盟并担任主席(1921~1928),组织召开日内瓦第一次世界人口会议(1927),后任国际计划生育联合会首任主席。

52.约瑟夫・史密斯(1805~1844):美国土生土长的宗教派别摩门教的创始人,主张实行多妻制。该人诡称见“异象”,得“天书(摩门经)”,1830年在纽约创立“耶稣基督末世徒教会(通称摩门教)”,后被捕入狱,在狱中遇害。

53.小奥利弗・万德尔・霍尔姆斯(1841~1935):法学家,联邦最高法院法官(1902~1932),“最伟大的持不同政见者”,他投书最高法院壮怀激烈地表达自己的观点,他的努力最终完善了美国的司法制度。

54.比尔・盖茨(1955~):商界巨擘、慈善家、信息时代的“洛克菲勒”。

55.约翰・昆西・亚当斯(1767~1848):美国第6任总统(1825~1829),曾任门罗总统的国务卿(1817),门罗主义的幕后军师,十九世纪美国外交游戏规则的总设计师。

56.贺拉斯・曼(1796~1859):不遗余力地鼓吹普及义务教育制为他赢得了“美国教育之父”的称号。

57.罗伯特・E・李(1807~1870):原为北军将领,美国内战时期倒戈,受命为南军总司令(1862),以灵活机动的战略战术挥师北进重创联邦军队。战败投降后致力于教育。

58.约翰・C・霍恩(1782~1850):美国副总统(1825~1832),南方诸州利益的维护者,极力维护奴隶制。

59.刘易斯・沙利文(1856~1924):摩天大楼之父。

60.威廉・福克纳(1897~1962):1949年诺贝尔文学奖获得者,美国“南方文学”流派的主将,他用文学阐释了一个历经磨难的梦幻般的美国南方。

61.塞缪尔・龚帕斯(1850~1924):美国最伟大的劳工领袖,他开创了工会的黄金时代。

62.威廉・詹姆斯(1842~1910):美国哲学家和心理学家,实用主义者,机能心理学创始人。

63.乔治・马歇尔(1880~1959):作为一名将军,他组织全国力量投入二战;作为一名政治家,他重建了欧洲。

64.简・亚当斯(1860~1935):女性社会改良家,扶贫济弱的“俗家圣人”,和平主义者。1889年创办芝加哥贫民区的社会福利团体荷尔堂,1931年和尼古拉・默瑞・巴特勒同获诺贝尔和平奖。

65.亨利・大卫・梭罗(1817~1862):作家,美国超验主义运动的代表人物,主流社会思潮的弃儿,150年来,他的思想激励了寻求返璞归真的人。

66.埃尔维斯・普莱斯利(1935~1977):摇滚之星――“猫王”。

67.P・T・巴纳姆(1810~1891):把马戏团的表演手法引入影视节目,轰动了影视界。

68.詹姆士・沃森(1928~):生物学家,发现了脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)的双螺旋线分子结构,从而揭开了生命密码,1962年与英国的F・H・克里克、M・威尔京斯共享诺贝尔医学奖。

69.詹姆士・戈登・贝内特(1795~1872):1835年创办第一家现代美国报纸《纽约先驱报》。

70.威廉・克拉克(1770~1838)和M・刘易斯(1774~1809):探险家,他们西行探险,数以百万计美国人紧随其后开疆辟土。

71.挪亚・韦伯斯特(1758~1843):他虽然没有创造“美国英语”,但是编纂了《美国英语词典》。

72.萨姆・沃尔顿(1918~1992):他创建的沃尔玛大型连锁超市改变了美国人的消费方式,也影响了大型商场的经营理念,其口号是:“天天都有优惠价”。

73.塞卢斯・麦考密克(1809~1884):他的联合收割机结束了传统农业的历史,开辟了农业现代化的新篇章。

74.布瑞汉姆・杨(1801~1877):继承了约瑟夫・史密斯的衣钵,带领一部分摩门教徒寻找乐园来到到盐湖城。首任犹他州州长(1849~1857),促进了美国西部的开发。杨伯翰大学以他命名。

75.乔治・H・鲁思(1895~1948):顶级职业棒球运动员,首批进入美国棒球荣誉厅的五人之一。

76.弗兰克・劳埃德・赖特(1867~1959):美国最有影响的建筑师,反对“钢筋混凝土丛林”,主张田园式建筑风格,东京帝国饭店、纽约拉金大厦是其杰作。

77.贝缇・弗里丹(1921~2006):二十世纪六十年代女权主义运动的代言人,她代表家庭主妇诉说了她们的委屈和愤懑,极大地推动了男权主义之下的“第二性”革命。

78.约翰・布朗(1800~1859):废奴运动领袖,他是英雄?是狂热分子?还是兼而有之?是非功过自有后人评说,有一点不可否认,他擦出了内战的火星。

79.路易斯・阿姆斯特朗(1900~1971):他的天赋和魅力把爵士乐从乡间小屋带到了百老汇,打入了影视界。

80.威廉・兰道夫・赫斯特(1863~1951):报业托拉斯泰斗,新闻炒作的始作俑者,美西战争的爆发少不了他煽风点火的功劳。

81.玛格丽特・米德(1901~1978):人类学家,《萨摩亚人的成年》给她带来了学术声望,也招致了非议。

82.乔治・盖洛普(1901~1984):民意测验的创始人。

83.詹姆士・F・库珀(1789~1851):开创了美国文学史上三种不同类型的小说,即美国革命历史小说、边疆冒险小说和海上冒险小说。

84.瑟戈德・马歇尔(1908~1993):美国最高法院第一位黑人法官(1967),曾任副总监察长(1965~1967)。

85.欧内斯特・海明威(1899~1961):“迷惘一代”的代表人物,作品风格独特,文笔精炼,1954年获诺贝尔文学奖。

86.马丽・B・艾娣(1821~1910):基督教科学派创始人,相信基督的精神力量可以治愈创伤。她发现了“基督科学”(1866),创办了《基督教科学箴言报》。

87.本杰明・斯波克(1903~1998):他的一本《育婴保健常识》成为“婴儿潮”时代的畅销书,影响了整整一代美国母婴的保健。

88.恩里克・费米(1901~1954):美籍意大利科学家,1938年获得诺贝尔物理学奖,1939年赴美,1942年主持建立世界上第一座原子能反应堆。

89.瓦尔特・李普曼(1889~1974):哈佛高材生,新闻评论家,世界知名政治专栏作家。

90.约纳森・爱德华兹(1703~1758):玄学论者,基督清教派神学理论家,诲人不倦,认为真正的美德是对上帝全心全意的热爱。

91.莱曼・比彻(1775~1863):斯陀夫人的父亲,废奴主义者和励志派布道家。

92.约翰・斯坦贝克(1902~1968):1962年获得诺贝尔文学奖,他描绘了大萧条时代农业工人的悲惨图景。

93.纳特・特纳(1800~1831):“斯巴达克思”式黑奴,曾率领奴隶揭竿而起(1831),数天内杀死57名白人,被俘后被判处绞刑。他的幽灵搅扰了南方白人长达一个世纪之久。

94.乔治・伊斯曼(1854~1932):发明家,柯达照相器材公司创建人(1892)。

95.萨姆・高德温(1882~1974):电影制片人,曾主持米高梅电影公司,蜚声好莱坞电影业将近四十年。

96.拉尔夫・纳德(1934~):律师,保护消费者利益运动领导人,环保主义者,设立“汽车安全中心”。现代的“唐吉诃德”,作为“第三支力量”的总统候选人四次赤膊上阵,四次力有不逮,分流了民主党候选人的选票,间接使小布什赢得总统选举。

97.斯蒂芬・福斯特(1826~1864):美国第一位伟大的作曲家,创作歌曲约二百首,多数自撰歌词,曲调朴实流畅,《哦,苏珊娜!》《老黑奴》《我悠久的肯塔基故乡》久唱不衰。

98.布克・T・华盛顿(1856~1915):黑人教育家、政治家,创建肯塔基工业师范学院。

99.理查德・尼克松(1913~1994):美国第37任总统(1969~1974),共和党人,其融冰之旅开启了中美建交之门。他打破了罗斯福新政以来民主党长期执政的局面,又因“水门事件”黯然辞职。

100.赫尔曼・梅尔维尔(1819~1891):《白鲸》的作者,后来被誉为美国的莎士比亚。


以史为鉴:美国名人一百排行榜-1.jpg

英文对照

the 100 most influential figures in american history

1 Abraham Lincoln

He saved the Union, freed the slaves, and presided over America’s second founding.
2 George Washington

He made the United States possible—not only by defeating a king, but by declining to become one himself.
3 Thomas Jefferson

The author of the five most important words in American history: “All men are created equal.”

4FranklinDelanoRoosevelt

He said, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself,” and then he proved it.

5 Alexander Hamilton

Soldier, banker, and political scientist, he set in motion an agrarian nation’s transformation into an industrial power.

6 Benjamin Franklin

The Founder-of-all-trades— scientist, printer, writer, diplomat, inventor, and more; like his country, he contained multitudes.

7 John Marshall

The defining chief justice, he established the Supreme Court as the equal of the other two federal branches.

8 Martin Luther King Jr.

His dream of racial equality is still elusive, but no one did more to make it real.

9 Thomas Edison

It wasn’t just the lightbulb; the Wizard of Menlo Park was the most prolific inventor in American history.

10 WoodrowWilson

He made the world safe for U.S. interventionism, if not for democracy.

11 John D. Rockefeller

The man behind Standard Oil set the mold for our tycoons—first by making money, then by giving it away.

12 Ulysses S. Grant

He was a poor president, but he was the general Lincoln needed; he also wrote the greatest political memoir in American history.

13 James Madison

He fathered the Constitution and wrote the Bill of Rights.

14 Henry Ford

He gave us the assembly line and the Model T, and sparked America’s love affair with the automobile.

15 Theodore Roosevelt

Whether busting trusts or building canals, he embodied the “strenuous life” and blazed a trail for twentieth-century America.

16 Mark Twain

Author of our national epic, he was the most unsentimental observer of our national life.

17 Ronald Reagan

The amiable architect of both the conservative realignment and the Cold War’s end.

18 Andrew Jackson

The first great populist: he found America a republic and left it a democracy.

19 Thomas Paine

The voice of the American Revolution, and our first great radical.

20 Andrew Carnegie

The original self-made man forged America’s industrial might and became one of the nation’s greatest philanthropists.

21 Harry Truman

An accidental president, this machine politician ushered in the Atomic Age and then the Cold War.

22 Walt Whitman

He sang of America and shaped the country’s conception of itself.

23 Wright Brothers

They got us all off the ground.

24 Alexander GrahamBell

By inventing the telephone, he opened the age of telecommunications and shrank the world.

25 John Adams

His leadership made the American Revolution possible; his devotion to republicanism made it succeed.

26 Walt Disney

The quintessential entertainer-entrepreneur, he wielded unmatched influence over our childhood.

27 Eli Whitney

His gin made cotton king and sustained an empire for slavery.

28 Dwight Eisenhower

He won a war and two elections, and made everybody like Ike.

29 Earl Warren

His Supreme Court transformed American society and bequeathed to us the culture wars.

30 Elizabeth CadyStanton

One of the first great American feminists, she fought for social reform and women’s right to vote.

31 Henry Clay

One of America’s greatest legislators and orators, he forged compromises that held off civil war for decades.

32 Albert Einstein

His greatest scientific work was done in Europe, but his humanity earned him undying fame in America.

33 Ralph Waldo Emerson

The bard of individualism, he relied on himself—and told us all to do the same.

34 Jonas Salk

His vaccine for polio eradicated one of the world’s worst plagues.

35 Jackie Robinson

He broke baseball’s color barrier and embodied integration’s promise.

36 WilliamJenningsBryan

“The Great Commoner” lost three presidential elections, but his populism transformed the country.

37 J. P. Morgan

The great financier and banker was the prototype for all the Wall Street barons who followed.

38 Susan B. Anthony

She was the country’s most eloquent voice for women’s equality under the law.

39 Rachel Carson

The author of Silent Spring was godmother to the environmental movement.

40 John Dewey

He sought to make the public school a training ground for democratic life.

41 Harriet Beecher Stowe

Her Uncle Tom’s Cabin inspired a generation of abolitionists and set the stage for civil war.

42 Eleanor Roosevelt

She used the first lady’s office and the mass media to become “first lady of the world.”

43 W. E. B. DuBois

One of America’s great intellectuals, he made the “problem of the color line” his life’s work.

44 Lyndon Baines Johnson

His brilliance gave us civil-rights laws; his stubbornness gave us Vietnam.

45 Samuel F. B. Morse

Before the Internet, there was Morse code.

46 William Lloyd Garrison

Through his newspaper, The Liberator, he became the voice of abolition.

47 Frederick Douglass

After escaping from slavery, he pricked the nation’s conscience with an eloquent accounting of its crimes.

48 Robert Oppenheimer

The father of the atomic bomb and the regretful midwife of the nuclear era.

49FrederickLaw Olmsted

The genius behind New York’s Central Park, he inspired the greening of America’s cities.

50 James K. Polk

This one-term president’s Mexican War landgrab gave us California, Texas, and the Southwest.

51 Margaret Sanger

The ardent champion of birth control—and of the sexual freedom that came with it.

52 Joseph Smith

The founder of Mormonism, America’s most famous homegrown faith.

53 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.

Known as “The Great Dissenter,” he wrote Supreme Court opinions that continue to shape American jurisprudence.

54 Bill Gates

The Rockefeller of the Information Age, in business and philanthropy alike.

55 John QuincyAdams

The Monroe Doctrine’s real author, he set nineteenth-century America’s diplomatic course.

56 Horace Mann

His tireless advocacy of universal public schooling earned him the title “The Father of American Education.”

57 Robert E. Lee

He was a good general but a better symbol, embodying conciliation in defeat.

58 John C. Calhoun

The voice of the antebellum South, he was slavery’s most ardent defender.

59 Louis Sullivan

The father of architectural modernism, he shaped the defining American building: the skyscraper.

60 William Faulkner

The most gifted chronicler of America’s tormented and fascinating South.

61 Samuel Gompers

The country’s greatest labor organizer, he made the golden age of unions possible.

62 William James

The mind behind Pragmatism, America’s most important philosophical school.

63 George Marshall

As a general, he organized the American effort in World War II; as a statesman, he rebuilt Western Europe.

64 Jane Addams

The founder of Hull House, she became the secular saint of social work.

65 Henry David Thoreau

The original American dropout, he has inspired seekers of authenticity for 150 years.

66 Elvis Presley

The king of rock and roll. Enough said.

67 P. T. Barnum

The circus impresario’s taste for spectacle paved the way for blockbuster movies and reality TV.

68 James D. Watson

He codiscovered DNA’s double helix, revealing the code of life to scientists and entrepreneurs alike.

69 James Gordon Bennett

As the founding publisher of The New York Herald, he invented the modern American newspaper.

70 Lewis and Clark

They went west to explore, and millions followed in their wake.

71 Noah Webster

He didn’t create American English, but his dictionary defined it.

72 Sam Walton

He promised us “Every Day Low Prices,” and we took him up on the offer.

73 Cyrus McCormick

His mechanical reaper spelled the end of traditional farming, and the beginning of industrial agriculture.

74 Brigham Young

What Joseph Smith founded, Young preserved, leading the Mormons to their promised land.

75 George Herman “Babe” Ruth

He saved the national pastime in the wake of the Black Sox scandal—and permanently linked sports and celebrity.

76 Frank Lloyd Wright

America’s most significant architect, he was the archetype of the visionary artist at odds with capitalism.

77 Betty Friedan

She spoke to the discontent of housewives everywhere—and inspired a revolution in gender roles.

78 John Brown

Whether a hero, a fanatic, or both, he provided the spark for the Civil War.

79 Louis Armstrong

His talent and charisma took jazz from the cathouses of Storyville to Broadway, television, and beyond.

80 William Randolph Hearst

The press baron who perfected yellow journalism and helped start the Spanish-American War.

81 Margaret Mead

With Coming of Age in Samoa, she made anthropology relevant—and controversial.

82 George Gallup

He asked Americans what they thought, and the politicians listened.

83 James Fenimore Cooper

The novels are unreadable, but he was the first great mythologizer of the frontier.

84 ThurgoodMarshall

As a lawyer and a Supreme Court justice, he was the legal architect of the civil-rights revolution.

85 Ernest Hemingway

His spare style defined American modernism, and his life made machismo a cliché.

86 Mary Baker Eddy

She got off her sickbed and founded Christian Science, which promised spiritual healing to all.

87 Benjamin Spock

With a single book—and a singular approach—he changed American parenting.

88 Enrico Fermi

A giant of physics, he helped develop quantum theory and was instrumental in building the atomic bomb.

89 Walter Lippmann

The last man who could swing an election with a newspaper column.

90 Jonathan Edwards

Forget the fire and brimstone: his subtle eloquence made him the country’s most influential theologian.

91 Lyman Beecher

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s clergyman father earned fame as an abolitionist and an evangelist.

92 John Steinbeck

As the creator of Tom Joad, he chronicled Depression-era misery.

93 Nat Turner

He was the most successful rebel slave; his specter would stalk the white South for a century.

94 George Eastman

The founder of Kodak democratized photography with his handy rolls of film.

95 Sam Goldwyn

A producer for forty years, he was the first great Hollywood mogul.

96 Ralph Nader

He made the cars we drive safer; thirty years later, he made George W. Bush the president.

97 Stephen Foster

America’s first great songwriter, he brought us “O! Susanna” and “My Old Kentucky Home.”

98 Booker T. Washington

As an educator and a champion of self-help, he tried to lead black America up from slavery.

99 Richard Nixon

He broke the New Deal majority, and then broke his presidency on a scandal that still haunts America.

100 Herman Melville

Moby Dick was a flop at the time, but Melville is remembered as the American Shakespeare.

(排名引自《大西洋月刊》2006年12月号)